Article 1: Definitions
Article 2: Obligations of Contracting States; Whom they must protect and
Article 3: Means of Implementation by Contracting States
Article 4: Term of Protection
Article 5: Formalities
Article 6: Limitations on Protection
Article 7: Savings: 1. Safeguard of Copyright and Neighboring Rights; 2.
Protection for Performers; 3. Non–Retroactivity; 4. Substitution of
the Criterion of Fixation
Article 8: Secretariat
Article 9: Joining the Convention: 1. Signature and Deposit; 2 and 3.
Ratification and Accession; 4. States’ Obligations as to their
Article 10: Reservations
Article 11: Entry into Force and Applicability: 1 and 2. Entry into Force of the
Convention; 3 and 4. Applicability of the Convention to Certain
Article 12: Denunciation of the Convention
Article 13: Languages and Notifications
The Contracting States,
concerned at the widespread and
increasing unauthorized duplication of phonograms and the damage
this is occasioning to the interests of authors, performers and producers of phonograms;
convinced that the protection of
producers of phonograms against such acts will also benefit the
performers whose performances, and the authors whose works, are recorded on the said phonograms;
recognizing the value of the work
undertaken in this field by the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization and the World Intellectual Property Organization;
anxious not to impair in any way
international agreements already in force and in particular in no way
to prejudice wider acceptance of the Rome Convention of October 26, 1961, which affords protection to
performers and to broadcasting organizations as well as to producers of phonograms;
have agreed as follows:
For the purposes of this Convention:
“phonogram” means any exclusively aural fixation of sounds of a performance or of other
“producer of phonograms” means the person who, or the legal entity which, first fixes the
sounds of a performance or other sounds;
* This Table of Contents is added for the convenience of the reader. It does not appear in the original text of the Convention.
* Articles have been given titles to facilitate their identification. There are no titles in the signed text.
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“duplicate” means an article which contains sounds taken directly or indirectly from a
phonogram and which embodies all or a substantial part of the sounds fixed in that phonogram;
“distribution to the public” means any act by which duplicates of a phonogram are offered,
directly or indirectly, to the general public or any section thereof.
[Obligations of Contracting States; Whom they must protect and against what]
Each Contracting State shall
protect producers of phonograms who are nationals of other Contracting
States against the making of duplicates without the consent of the producer and against the importation of
such duplicates, provided that any such making or importation is for the purpose of distribution to the
public, and against the distribution of such duplicates to the public.
[Means of Implementation by Contracting States]
The means by which this Convention
is implemented shall be a matter for the domestic law of each
Contracting State and shall include one or more of the following: protection by means of the grant of a
copyright or other specific right; protection by means of the law relating to unfair competition; protection by
means of penal sanctions.
[Term of Protection]
The duration of the protection
given shall be a matter for the domestic law of each Contracting State.
However, if the domestic law prescribes a specific duration for the protection, that duration shall not be less
than twenty years from the end either of the year in which the sounds embodied in the phonogram were first
fixed or of the year in which the phonogram was first published.
If, as a condition of protecting
the producers of phonograms, a Contracting State, under its domestic
law, requires compliance with formalities, these shall be considered as fulfilled if all the authorized
duplicates of the phonogram distributed to the public or their containers bear a notice consisting of the
symbol (P), accompanied by the year date of the first publication, placed in such manner as to give
reasonable notice of claim of protection; and, if the duplicates or their containers do not identify the
producer, his successor in title or the exclusive licensee (by carrying his name, trademark or other
appropriate designation), the notice shall also include the name of the producer, his successor in title or the
[Limitations on Protection]
Any Contracting State which affords
protection by means of copyright or other specific right, or
protection by means of penal sanctions, may in its domestic law provide, with regard to the protection of
producers of phonograms, the same kinds of limitations as are permitted with respect to the protection of
authors of literary and artistic works. However, no compulsory licenses may be permitted unless all of the
following conditions are met:
the duplication is for use solely for the purpose of teaching or scientific research;
the license shall be valid for duplication only within the territory of the Contracting State
whose competent authority has granted the license and shall not extend to the export of
the duplication made under the license gives rise to an equitable remuneration fixed by the said
authority taking into account, inter alia, the number of duplicates which will be made.
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[Savings: 1. Safeguard of Copyright
and Neighboring Rights; 2. Protection for Performers; 3. Non–
Retroactivity; 4. Substitution of the Criterion of Fixation]
(1) This Convention shall in no way
be interpreted to limit or prejudice the protection otherwise
secured to authors, to performers, to producers of phonograms or to broadcasting organizations under any
domestic law or international agreement.
(2) It shall be a matter for the domestic law of each Contracting State to determine the extent, if any,
to which performers whose performances are fixed in a phonogram are entitled to enjoy protection and the
conditions for enjoying any such protection.
(3) No Contracting State shall be required to apply the provisions of this Convention to any
phonogram fixed before this Convention entered into force with respect to that State.
(4) Any Contracting State which, on October 29, 1971, affords protection to producers of phonograms
solely on the basis of the place of first fixation may, by a notification deposited with the Director General of
the World Intellectual Property Organization, declare that it will apply this criterion instead of the criterion
of the nationality of the producer.
(1) The International Bureau of the
World Intellectual Property Organization shall assemble and
publish information concerning the protection of phonograms. Each Contracting State shall promptly
communicate to the International Bureau all new laws and official texts on this subject.
(2) The International Bureau shall, on request, furnish information to any Contracting State on matters
concerning this Convention, and shall conduct studies and provide services designed to facilitate the
protection provided for therein.
(3) The International Bureau shall exercise the functions enumerated in paragraphs (1) and (2) above
in cooperation, for matters within their respective competence, with the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Labor Organisation.
[Joining the Convention: 1.
Signature and Deposit; 2 and 3. Ratification and Accession; 4. States’
Obligations as to their Domestic Law]
(1) This Convention shall be
deposited with the Secretary–General of the United Nations. It shall be
open until April 30, 1972, for signature by any State that is a member of the United Nations, any of the
Specialized Agencies brought into relationship with the United Nations, or the International Atomic Energy
Agency, or is a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.
(2) This Convention shall be subject to ratification or acceptance by the signatory States. It shall be
open for accession by any State referred to in paragraph (1) of this Article.
(3) Instruments of ratification, acceptance or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary–General
of the United Nations.
(4) It is understood that, at the time a State becomes bound by this Convention, it will be in a position
in accordance with its domestic law to give effect to the provisions of the Convention.
No reservations to this Convention are permitted.
[Entry into Force and
Applicability: 1 and 2. Entry into Force of the Convention; 3 and 4.
the Convention to Certain Territories]
(1) This Convention shall enter
into force three months after deposit of the fifth instrument of
ratification, acceptance or accession.
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(2) For each State ratifying,
accepting or acceding to this Convention after the deposit of the fifth
instrument of ratification, acceptance or accession, the Convention shall enter into force three months after
the date on which the Director General of the World Intellectual Property Organization informs the States,
in accordance with Article 13, paragraph (4), of the deposit of its instrument.
(3) Any State may, at the time of ratification, acceptance or accession or at any later date, declare by
notification addressed to the Secretary–General of the United Nations that this Convention shall apply to all
or any one of the territories for whose international affairs it is responsible. This notification will take effect
three months after the date on which it is received.
(4) However, the preceding
paragraph may in no way be understood as implying the recognition or
tacit acceptance by a Contracting State of the factual situation concerning a territory to which this
Convention is made applicable by another Contracting State by virtue of the said paragraph.
[Denunciation of the Convention]
(1) Any Contracting State may
denounce this Convention, on its own behalf or on behalf of any of the
territories referred to in Article 11, paragraph (3), by written notification addressed to the Secretary–General
of the United Nations.
(2) Denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the date on which the Secretary–General of the
United Nations has received the notification.
[Languages and Notifications]
(1) This Convention shall be signed
in a single copy in English, French, Russian and Spanish, the four
texts being equally authentic.
(2) Official texts shall be established by the Director General of the World Intellectual Property
Organization, after consultation with the interested Governments, in the Arabic, Dutch, German, Italian and
(3) The Secretary–General of the United Nations shall notify the Director General of the World
Intellectual Property Organization, the Director–General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization and the Director–General of the International Labor Office of:
(a) signatures to this Convention;
(b) the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or accession;
(c) the date of entry into force of this Convention;
(d) any declaration notified pursuant to Article 11, paragraph (3);
(e) the receipt of notifications of denunciation.
(4) The Director General of the
World Intellectual Property Organization shall inform the States
referred to in Article 9, paragraph (1), of the notifications received pursuant to the preceding paragraph and
of any declarations made under Article 7, paragraph (4). He shall also notify the Director–General of the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Director–General of the
International Labor Office of such declarations.
(5) The Secretary–General of the United Nations shall transmit two certified copies of this
Convention to the States referred to in Article 9, paragraph (1).